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Antecedents

In the two paragraphs below, some of the reference words are numbered and highlighted. They are also listed below their respective paragraphs. After reading the first paragraph, go to the list of reference words below it. Type the correct antecedent of each reference word in the blank box below it. Then click ANSWER for verification that will appear at the bottom of the page. Do the same with the second paragraph.

1. Paragraph 1:

After the Soviet Union established communism in East Germany, 1they took over banks, farms, and industries and forced people to work for low wages. In response to 2these difficult conditions, hundreds of thousands of East German citizens fled to 3the West to live. Soon, fewer people were working in East German factories, banks, farms, and industries. Then, on 26 May 1952, in order to stop 4this exodus, East Germany established a tight 5security system along its frontier with West Germany: Starting at the Baltic Sea in the north and extending all the way to Czechoslovakia in the south, 6they constructed minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards. 7These effectively kept East Germans from escaping to West Germany across the frontier.

1. they   ANSWER
They: ANTECEDENT: the Soviet Union.


2. these difficult conditions   ANSWER
These difficult conditions: ANTECEDENT: the Soviet Union took over banks, farms, and industries and forced people to work for low wages.


3. the West   ANSWER
The west: ANTECEDENT: West Germany


4. this exodus   ANSWER
This exodus: ANTECEDENT: hundreds of thousands of East German citizens fled to the West to live


5. security system   ANSWER
Security system: ANTECEDENT: minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia.


6. they   ANSWER
They: ANTECEDENT: East Germany


7. These   ANSWER
These: ANTECEDENT: minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia



2. Paragraph 2:

However, within the city of Berlin, there was no 8such security system. People were still able to pass freely from 9 East to West and they 10did. Many East Germans made their way to Berlin; then, they crossed over to the West, and never returned. Finally, on 13 August 1961, the East German Government built a huge 27-mile wall of concrete and barbed wire right through the middle of 11the city, dividing the Soviet sector from 12the other three. Now nobody could escape to the West; East Germans were truly prisoners of 13their own country. 14The Berlin Wall separated families and ruined 15people's lives.

8. such security system.  ANSWER
Such security system: ANTECEDENT: A security system like the minefields, barbed wire, and watchtowers with guards along the East-German to West-German frontier. Note that the word 'such' does not refer directly to the East-West German frontier security system; rather, it refers to a hypothetical security system that would resemble the one on the East-West German frontier.


9. East to West  ANSWER
East to West: ANTECEDENT: East Germany to West Germany.


10. did  ANSWER
Did: ANTECEDENT: pass freely from East to West


11. the city  ANSWER
The city: ANTECEDENT: Berlin


12. the other three  ANSWER
The other three: ANTECEDENT: sectors


13. their own country  ANSWER
Their own country: ANTECEDENT: East Germany


14. The Berlin Wall  ANSWER
The Berlin Wall: ANTECEDENT: a huge 27-mile wall of concrete and barbed wire right through the middle of the city


15. people's  ANSWER
People's: ANTECEDENT: both East Germans and West Germans