Connectives that introduce the reason for or the result of something are both common and relatively numerous. Of course, it is important to note the difference between the two, and therefore the following lists are divided into connectives that introduce a reason (or cause) and those that introduce a result (or effect).
Conjunctions and the Reason-Result Relationship
Conjunctions that introduce a reason include the following:
The two sentences below illustrate the use of so that and since.
Please dim the lights so that people can read the screen better.
Since my daughter needs 28 more credits, I don't think she will be able to graduate this semester.
Conjunction that introduce a result:
The following two sentences illustrate the use of so:
People want to read the screen better, so please dim the lights.
My daughter needs 28 more credits, so I don't think she will be able to graduate this semester.
Conjunctive Adverbs and the Reason-Result Relationship
There are no conjunctive adverbs that introduce a reason. However, there are several conjunctive adverbs that introduce a result:
as a result
for this reason
Two of these are illustrated in the sentences below.
Large companies have an interest in influencing government policy; accordingly, they donate large sums of money to political parties.
I didn't study. As a result, I flunked the final exam.
Prepositions and the Reason-Result Relationship
Prepositions that introduce a reason are the following:
as a result of
in consequence of
on account of
Two are illustrated in the sentences below.
I flunked because of not studying.
Many people are saying they can't retire on account of the slumping stock market.
There are no prepositions that introduce a result.