Perhaps the most straightforward relationship is that of addition, where the speaker, having mentioned one thing, wants to go on to talk about something else which is similar. As with the other relationships discussed below, the additive relationship may occur within sentences or across sentences. The relationship may be expressed between two ideas or more than two, in which case it frequently takes the form of a list.
The following conjunctions are used to express the additive relationship:
as well as
both . . . and
neither . . . nor
not only . . . but also
As noted above, conjunctions can often be used to link two (or more) parallel parts of speech. In the examples below, the conjunction as well as in the first sentence links two noun phrases. In the second sentence not only… but also links two adjectives. In the third sentence neither … nor links two adverbs. And in the fourth sentence, and links the second and third adjectives of the list tall, rich, handsome.
He's a student of English as well as a deeply religious man.
My neighbor's dog is not only large but also unfriendly.
She drove neither slowly nor carefully.
He's tall, rich, and handsome.
The second use of conjunctions, again as noted above, is to link ideas expressed in clauses, as in the following examples:
I gave a presentation at the conference, plus I met some very interesting people.
The janitor both washed all the windows and mopped all the floors.
Sometimes, the two ideas may not seem to be quite so similar.
Taxes are due on the 15th of April, and I haven't done mine yet.
Conjunctive Adverbs and the Additive Relationship
English offers a large number of conjunctive adverbs which allow for the addition of similar information, as in the list below.
first, second, third
The use such conjunctive adverbs is illustrated in the following two sentences:
Monica is travelling to Bavaria during spring break; also, she intends to visit Austria.
This quarter, my students have been very eager to learn; moreover, they seem to have been smarter than some in past quarters.
It is important to note that, although the conjunctive adverbs in the above list are often grouped together as being related in meaning, they are not all fully interchangeable. Consider the following sentence:
Two hundred graduates received baccalaureate degrees. Additionally, 25 doctoral degrees were conferred.
One would not say, however:
Two hundred graduates received baccalaureate degrees. Equally, 25 doctoral degrees were conferred.
This non-exchangeability of conjunctive adverbs, which are otherwise similar in meaning, causes problems for deaf students, and it is important to remember when providing lists to point out that not all words fit in all situations.
Prepositions and the Additive Relationship
Two prepositions that allow for the addition of similar information are
in addition to
as illustrated in the following two sentences:
What do you do besides running?
Add a pinch of garlic in addition to the teaspoonful of pepper.